What is an original print?
The Print Council of America issued a guide establishing a criteria for an original print:
- The artist alone must create the master image on the stone, or whatever material would be used to make the print.
- The print -if not printed by the artist- should be hand printed
by someone under the artist's direct supervision.
- Each impression should be approved and signed by the artist and
the master image (the matrix) destroyed or cancelled. The original print is not a copy of anything else, not a copy of a painting or another print. If an artist chooses to copy his own work, originally done in another medium, it would be a print done after an oil (or other medium). An original print is a creative endeavor by the artist and therefore is as valid an expression as is any other form of visual art - may it be a painting or a sculpture. The original print is a work of art in it's own right.
Types of Prints
Many of the most famous images in art are, in fact, prints. Take for
example one of Durer's most famous works "Apocalypse" which is
a woodcut, and therefore a multiple original. There are three
"generalities" of printmaking: intaglio methods, relief methods and planographic methods.
The following information will help to clarify some of the terminology that is associated with print collecting, which may be somewhat intimidating.
Since the beginning of history, men scratched and incised lines into stone,
skin or bark. The technique was continued by Greek designers and by the
Etruscans and Romans. It was brought to great refinement by the
artisan-engraver, and that of the artist, collaborating to produce a
multiple image: the print.
The apparently were in the beginning of the 16th century some artist who
felt that the woodcut was coarse and primitive. We do not know who first
thought of the idea of rubbing ink into the lines and coaxing it out by
pressing a dampened sheet of paper against the metal surface.
The areas to be printed are incised by cutting, scratching, or etching
below the printing surface to hold ink in the now recessed areas. The paper
is placed on top of the plate and together they are pulled through the
press. The pressure required to pick up the ink leaves a visable plate mark
within the margin of the sheet of paper.
The design in cut into the surface of the matrix (commonly a copper plate)
by a tool called a burin. After inking, the plate surface is whiped clean
and the ink remains in the incised lines.
The image is drawn onto the plate with a steel needle. The incising leaves
a ridge called a "burr", much like a plow leaves furrows of dirt to either
side as it cuts through the ground. When the plate is printed, the burr
holds some ink, and produces a soft velvety line, characteristic of the Drypoint.
The artist coats the surface of the metal plate (usually copper) with an
acid-resistant ground. Then, with a needle, the artist draws the image into
the ground exposing the copper below. The plate is then immersed in an acid
bath which cuts lines ("biting") into the plate. After the plate is bitten
to the artist's satisfaction, it is cleaned, inked and printed.
4. Soft Ground Etching
The artist prepares the plate in much the same was as an etching, using a
different kind of ground. This ground allows the artist, after laying a
pice of paper on top, to draw the image with a pencil. The coating under
the pressure of the pencil adheres to the paper which is then lifted off,
exposing the copper underneath. The plate is then bitten in the same way as
The plate surface is pitted with a tool called a raker. The plate is
eventually covered with thousands of tiny "pits" which hold ink and would
print a deep velvety black if not further worked. The artist then scrapes
and burnishes areas of the plate he wishes to print less darkly, so the
effect is of tone rather than line. The artist essentially draws the light
into the image.
This technique is used to create tone and texture in a print. The plate is
sprinkled with a powdered resin, heated so the resin melts and clings, then
given an acid bath to bit the areas not covered by the resin, creating a
porus ground. Aquatint is rarely employed by itself, but rather in
combination with other intaglio methods.
1. The Woodcut
The technique for making woodcuts by the relief process was discovered by
the Chinese. It is the oldest form of printmaking, and appeared in about a
millenia before the first prints ever appeared in Europe. Most artists in
the 13th and 14th century who made woodcuts remain anonymous. The first
major artist to use the medium was Albrecht Durer, who in 1498 executed the
large passion with German and Latin text.
The principal of the woodcut is similar to the workings of a rubber stamp.
The artist cuts away the portion of those areas on the woodblock which he
does not want to print leaving raised (or in relief) the images that is to be printed.
2. Linoleum Cut
This method is done in much the same was as the woodcut, except a linoleum
block is used. (The most important Linoleum Cuts were executed by Picasso,
who invented a new "reduction" method.)
The artist draws the image directly on a highly polished limestone using a
grease based crayon, or grease based liquid called tusche, similar to a
paint. The stone is then prepared for printing by applying a
chemical solution of gum arabic and nitric acid to make it more receptive
to water. In order to make the print, the stone is dampened with water,
which will not adhere to the image drawn because of the natural
antipathy of grease to water. When ink is rolled over the stone, it will only
adhere to the grease based image. Then the paper is pressed against the stone,
and only the ink on the greasy image is transferred. The create a color
lithograph, a seperate stone for each color is used and must be printed separately.
The artist prepares a screen of silk, or synthetic, in which all areas
other then the one that is to be printed is blocked out. Paper is placed
under the stencil and ink is forced through. For each color a seperate screen in prepared.
Common Print Terms
A.P. - Impressins for the use of the artist outside of the regular edition. (Artist Proof)
a la poupee - A process by which all colors are applied to the plate
and printed simultaneously, creating varying impressions.
bon a tire - Meaning "right to print" this impression serves as a
guide for the rest of the edition.
Cancelled Plate - The plate is holed or scratched over in order to prevent further printing.
Catalogue Raisonne - A catalog containing a description of all the work done by an artist.
Counter Proof - The artist places a piece of paper over a print
while the ink is still wet, and pulss another impressin from the print itself.
Edition and Edition Size - A completed run of prints is usually
limited. There appears to be no minimum or maximum number used. Editions of
100 or less are considered small. Orignal prints have been executed to
accompany written texts and such editions may number in the thousands.
Hand Signing and Numbering - A print does not have to be signed and
numbered to be an original. The practice did not start until the later part
of the 19th century. One of the earliest proponents of the practice was
Whistler. The signature usually appears on the lower right margin and the numbers on the left.
Signed in the Plate - Instead of signing each print in pencil, the
artist signs in the plate in which case the signature appears printed.
State - A state designates an alteration on the plate, however small
or insignifigant it may be. The French engraver Felix Buhot, for instance,
seems to have been more concerned about the changes he could affect by
altering the plate rather than the final or published state.